Gemstones

Throughout the ages, the gemstones have been seen as representations of wealth and power. Symbols of supremacy like crowns and richly decorated clothes and robes have traditionally been adorned with jewels. But gemstones are not just for the wealthy or scientifically minded researcher. But these can be appreciated by common man also just to enjoy the beauty of these gems. The gemstones appeal initially due to their mysterious appeal, luster and their colour. This makes them exquisite but their rarity, hardness and durability makes them doubly valuable.

Gemstones are minerals. Out of a total of more than 2500 different minerals, only about 60 odd are commonly used as gemstones. Other minerals are unsuitable as gems because they are too soft and get scratched easily.

  • What are gemstones

    What are gemstones

    A mineral (or occasionally an organic mineral) to be called a gemstone, it must be beautiful in its appearance and colour. A gemstone has to be durable i. e. it should be hard enough to survive constant use and handling without getting scratched or damaged. Finally, it must be rare, because its scarcity makes it valuable.

    Most of the gemstones are natural inorganic minerals with a fixed chemical composition and a regular internal crystal structure. A few gems like Pearl and Amber come from plants and animals and are known as organic gems.

    Then there are some gems, which are synthetic. They do not have natural origin but are made in laboratories. They have very similar physical properties as the natural gems, and can be cut and polished to imitate the real thing. Sometimes these are used as a substitute in jewellery as they cost substantially less than the real gems.

  • Science of gemmology

    Science of gemmology

    Gems are scientifically fascinating too. Gemologists make a complete study of each stone, both as it is found in the rocks and after it has been cut and polished. That is why during the formal study of gemology, both aspects are given due importance. This makes them able to distinguish between two similar looking stones, one of which may be fake. The science of gemology looks at these minerals by way of their crystal structure and the physical properties. Everybody interested in buying gems (for whatever purpose) should have an idea of these properties.

    Hardness : One of the key qualities of a gemstone is hardness. This means how well a gemstone resists scratching. Higher the hardness, more durable is the stone. Diamond is the hardest gemstone known and has been assigned hardness of 10 on Moh's scale of hardness. The Talc has been given lowest hardness of 1 on this scale. All gemstones are rated in between 1 to 10.

    Specific Gravity : This property shows the density of the gem. In common parlance it shows the weightiness of the gem. The greater the specific gravity, the heavier the gem will feel.

    Crystal shapes: This can give a definite clue about the gem's internal structure and is used by experts to differentiate between fakes and original gems.

    Optical Properties : Researchers and experts to differentiate and decide about the ways of cutting and polishing the gems also use these properties.

  • How gemstones are formed

    How gemstones are formed

    Mineral Gemstones :: Gemstones that are of mineral origin are found in rocks, or in gem gravels derived from these rocks. Rocks themselves are made up of one or more minerals. The formation of these rocks is a continuous and ongoing process. Gem quality minerals within these rocks may be easily accessible at the earth's surface or they can lie buried deep inside it. Sometimes these gem laden rock gravels get separated from their host rock due to erosion and are carried long distances by rivers to lakes, sea and shallow areas. The three types of rocks where gemstones are found are:

    Igneous rocks : : These are rocks, which have solidified from the molten rocks, which lies molten deep beneath the earth's surface. Some igneous rocks are extrusive where it solidifies after volcanic eruption and some are intrusive rocks where it solidifies beneath the earth. The rate of solidification determines the size of crystals found. Slower the rate, larger the crystal and consequently larger the size of gemstones in it.

    Sedimentary rocks : : These rocks are formed by accumulation of rock fragments produced by weathering. In time these fragments settle down and harden into rock once again. Sedimentary rocks are normally found in layers and sometimes the gems found here show these layers in them.

    Metamorphic rocks : : Metamorphic rocks are either Igneous or Sedimentary, which have changed beneath the earth due to heat and pressure and has resulted in new form of minerals in it. During this process gemstones also grow within them.

  • Types of gemstones

    Types of gemstones

    Organic Gemstones :: Organic gemstones have their origin either from plants or from animals. Like natural Pearls form around foreign bodies that have made their way inside the shells of marine or freshwater shellfish. Cultured pearls are produced artificially in large fisheries, many in the shallow waters off the seashores. Shells, which are regarded as gems, may come from animals as diverse as snails and turtles, living in the ocean, in fresh water or on land. Coral is made up of the skeletons of tiny marine animals called Coral Polyps. Bone or Ivory from the teeth or tusks of mammals, may come from recently living animals or from fossils thousands of years old. Amber is fossilized tree resin, collected from soft sediments or the sea. Jet is fossilized wood, found in some sedimentary rocks.

    Synthetic Gemstones :: Synthetic gemstones are made in laboratories or factories, not in rocks. They virtually have the same chemical composition and crystal structure as natural gemstones and consequently their optical and physical properties are very similar. However, they can usually be identified by the difference in the inclusions in them. Many types of gems have been synthesized but only a few are produced commercially, generally for scientific or industrial use.

    Because of the way the synthetic gems are made, they show subtle differences in shape and colour that help to distinguish them from their natural counterparts. Similarly, the synthetic gems have inclusions, which are different from the natural inclusions. The experts can identify them and distinguish.

  • Effects of gemstones

    Effects of gemstones

    That gemstones work for the betterment of one’s life is a known fact. But many people do not believe in their effects. These days people, especially the younger generation, looks for scientific links between the gems and their effects. All astrological reasoning fails to impress many people to accept the benefits of the gemstones.

    There are laws in pure science which have not been proved but are accepted as their effects are observed by us day in and day out and they are called laws conversely also as they have not been proved otherwise. The simplest example being Law of Gravitation. It is a law because it is observed daily by us and also it has not been proved through experiment to be not true.

    Similarly the effects of the gemstones are observed by those who use them under proper prescription. Since the effects are very individual in nature, they are not in the scrutiny of public and people do not believe in their beneficial values.

    The gemstones have different colours and luster. Sun being the source of all energy, also affects human beings. If we observe the sunlight through prism in a laboratory, we get seven-colour spectrum. The other invisible two colours are infra red and ultra violet. Thus the spectrum of nine colours is understood to be the cosmic matrix and is very essence of nine planets. The nine planets are associated with these colours and the stones prescribed are also in consonance. It is important to note that the wavelength of coloured light emanating from the nine planets is believed to match those radiating from each planet’s corresponding gemstone. Thus prescribing gemstones is not out of synchronous with this energy system. A particular stone absorbs all kind of solar and cosmic energy and allows a particular type of energy to pass through it and which the body then absorbs. If prescribed properly, this actually helps the individual. This restores the balance in him and he finds the self-improving.

    Moreover, the effects of gemstones have been proved conversely also. If a person is prescribed a wrong gemstone, it has been observed to adversely affect him as long as he wears it and the effect goes away once the stone is removed. Thus the efficacy of gemstones do not require laboratory experiments just the way some of the pure science laws do not require experiment in their support.
  • Precious stones and their substitues

    Precious stones and their substitues

    ruby
    Precious Gemstones
    'Ruby'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Red Garnet'
    pearl
    Precious Gemstones
    'Pearl'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Moon Stone and Opal'
    red coral
    Precious Gemstones
    'Red Coral'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Carnelian'
    hessonite gemstone
    Precious Gemstones
    'Hessonite'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Zircon nd Amber'
    yellow sapphire
    Precious Gemstones
    'Yellow Sapphire'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Golden Topaz'
    blue sapphire
    Precious Gemstones
    'Blue Sapphire'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Turquoise and Lapis Lazuli'
    emerald
    Precious Gemstones
    'Emerald'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Peridot'
    cats eye gemstone
    Precious Gemstones
    'Cat's Eye'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Alesandrite'
    diamond
    Precious Gemstones
    'Diamond'
    Semi Precious Substitutes
    'Tourmaline and Rock Crystal'
     
  • Prescription on the basis of 'Janma Rashi' or the 'Moon sign'

    Prescription on the basis of 'Janma Rashi' or the 'Moon sign'

    Prescription on the basis of 'Janma Rashi' or the 'Moon sign'
    In this system of prescription the gemstone is prescribed on the basis of the zodiacal sign in which Moon was posited at the time of birth. This system can lead to prescription of appropriate stone many times but wearers, who have worn stones prescribed this way, have many times received adverse results. The basic flaw in the system is that it does not take care of the position of other planets in the zodiacal ecliptic and also loses sight of many other astrological factors. The table below gives the results of the first method. The Indian names for the planets and the stones have also been given for convenience of the readers.
    Red coral (moonga)
    red coral
    Ruling Planet
    Mars (mangal)
    Moon Sign
    Aries (mesha)
    Diamond (heera)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Venus (shukra)
    Moon Sign
    Taurus (vrish)
    Emerald (panna)
    emerald
    Ruling Planet
    Mercury (budh)
    Moon Sign
    Gemini (mithun)
    Pearl (moti)
    pearl
    Ruling Planet
    Moon (chandra)
    Moon Sign
    Cancer (karka)
    Ruby (manik)
    ruby
    Ruling Planet
    Sun (surya)
    Moon Sign
    Leo (singha)
    Emerald (panna)
    emerald
    Ruling Planet
    Mercury (budh)
    Moon Sign
    Virgo (kanya)
    Diamond (heera)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Venus (shukra)
    Moon Sign
    Libra (tula)
    Red Coral (moonga)
    red coral
    Ruling Planet
    Mars (mangal)
    Moon Sign
    Scorpio (vrischik)
    Yellow Sapphire (pukhraj)
    yellow sapphire
    Ruling Planet
    Jupiter (brihaspati)
    Moon Sign
    Sagittarius (dhanu)
    Blue Sapphire (neelam)
    blue sapphire
    Ruling Planet
    Saturn (shani)
    Moon Sign
    Capricorn (makar)
    Blue Sapphire (neelam)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Saturn (Shani)
    Moon Sign
    Aquarius (kumbh)
    Yellow Sapphire (pukhraj)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Jupiter (brihaspati)
    Moon Sign
    Pisces (meen)
     
  • Prescription on the basis of 'Janma Nakshatra'-the 'Birth Constellation'

    Prescription on the basis of 'Janma Nakshatra'-the 'Birth Constellation'

    Prescription on the basis of 'lagan' -the 'birth ascendant'
    In this system, the gemstone is prescribed on the basis of the sign, which is rising at the time of the birth. The system has a flaw that it does not give credence to any other astrological factor. The stones prescribed this way may not give any effect at times and may adversely affect the native. The chart shown below gives a summary of this system of prescription.
    Red coral (moonga)
    red coral
    Ruling Planet
    Mars (mangal)
    Moon Sign
    Aries (mesha)
    Diamond (heera)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Venus (shukra)
    Moon Sign
    Taurus (vrish)
    Emerald (panna)
    emerald
    Ruling Planet
    Mercury (budh)
    Moon Sign
    Gemini (mithun)
    Pearl (moti)
    pearl
    Ruling Planet
    Moon (chandra)
    Moon Sign
    Cancer (karka)
    Ruby (manik)
    ruby
    Ruling Planet
    Sun (surya)
    Moon Sign
    Leo (singha)
    Emerald (panna)
    emerald
    Ruling Planet
    Mercury (budh)
    Moon Sign
    Virgo (kanya)
    Diamond (heera)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Venus (shukra)
    Moon Sign
    Libra (tula)
    Red Coral (moonga)
    red coral
    Ruling Planet
    Mars (mangal)
    Moon Sign
    Scorpio (vrischik)
    Yellow Sapphire (pukhraj)
    yellow sapphire
    Ruling Planet
    Jupiter (brihaspati)
    Moon Sign
    Sagittarius (dhanu)
    Blue Sapphire (neelam)
    blue sapphire
    Ruling Planet
    Saturn (shani)
    Moon Sign
    Capricorn (makar)
    Blue Sapphire (neelam)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Saturn (Shani)
    Moon Sign
    Aquarius (kumbh)
    Yellow Sapphire (pukhraj)
    diamond
    Ruling Planet
    Jupiter (brihaspati)
    Moon Sign
    Pisces (meen)
     
  • Prescription on the basis of First letter of the Name

    Prescription on the basis of First letter of the Name

    Prescription on the basis of 'Janma Nakshatra'-the 'Birth Constellation'
    In this system the prescription is based on the constellation (Nakshatra) rising at the time of birth. This system in practice has been used for prescribing gemstones with amazing accuracy. But at times it does not give desired results as this system also ignores other astrological factors during the process of prescription of stones to a native. The table below shows in ready reckoner form this system of prescription.
    Gemstones (images) Name of Gemstones Ruling Planet Nakshatra
    Cat's Eye Ketu Aswini
    Diamond Venus Bharni
    Ruby Sun Krittika
    Pearl Moon Rohini
    Red Coral Marss Mrigshira
    Hessonite Rahu Adra
    Yellow Sapphire Jupiter Punarvasu
    Blue Sapphire Saturn Puhsyami
    Emerald Mercury Ashlesha
    Cat's Eye Ketu Magha
    Diamond Venus Poorva Phalguni
    Ruby Sun Uttra Phalguni
    Pearl Moon Hasta
    Red Coral Mars Chitra
    Hessonite Rahu Swati
    Yellow Sapphire Jupiter Vishaka
    Blue Sapphire Saturn Anuradha
    Emerald Mercury Jyeshta
    Cat's Eye Ketu Moola
    Diamond Venus Poorvashada
    Ruby Sun Uttarashda
    Pearl Moon Sravana
    Red Coral Mars Dhanishta
    Yellow Sapphire Jupiter Poorv Bhadrapad
    Blue Sapphire Saturn Uttra Bhadrapad
    Emerald Mercury Revathi

Testimonials

Opinions expressed by Dr. Sharma are very frank and clear. Lot of things told by him needs introspection. Very nicely conveyed facts and methods to be followed.
Colonel Piyush Sethi