Throughout the ages, the gemstones have been seen as representations of wealth and power. Symbols of supremacy like crowns and richly decorated clothes and robes have traditionally been adorned with jewels. But gemstones are not just for the wealthy or scientifically minded researcher. But these can be appreciated by common man also just to enjoy the beauty of these gems. The gemstones appeal initially due to their mysterious appeal,
Gemstones are minerals. Out of a total of more than 2500 different minerals, only about 60 odd are commonly used as gemstones. Other minerals are unsuitable as gems because they are too soft and get scratched easily.
Most of the gemstones are natural inorganic minerals with a fixed chemical composition and a regular internal crystal structure. A few gems like Pearl and Amber come from plants and animals and are known as organic gems.
Then there are some gems, which are synthetic. They do not have natural origin but are made in laboratories. They have very similar physical properties as the natural gems, and can be cut and polished to imitate the real thing. Sometimes these are used as a substitute in jewellery as they cost substantially less than the real gems.
Hardness : One of the key qualities of a gemstone is hardness. This means how well a gemstone resists scratching. Higher the hardness, more durable is the stone. Diamond is the hardest gemstone known and has been assigned hardness of 10 on Moh's scale of hardness. The Talc has been given lowest hardness of 1 on this scale. All gemstones are rated in between 1 to 10.
Specific Gravity : This property shows the density of the gem. In common parlance it shows the weightiness of the gem. The greater the specific gravity, the heavier the gem will feel.
Crystal shapes: This can give a definite clue about the gem's internal structure and is used by experts to differentiate between fakes and original gems.
Optical Properties : Researchers and experts to differentiate and decide about the ways of cutting and polishing the gems also use these properties.
Igneous rocks : : These are rocks, which have solidified from the molten rocks, which lies molten deep beneath the earth's surface. Some igneous rocks are extrusive where it solidifies after volcanic eruption and some are intrusive rocks where it solidifies beneath the earth. The rate of solidification determines the size of crystals found. Slower the rate, larger the crystal and consequently larger the size of gemstones in it.
Sedimentary rocks : : These rocks are formed by accumulation of rock fragments produced by weathering. In time these fragments settle down and harden into rock once again. Sedimentary rocks are normally found in layers and sometimes the gems found here show these layers in them.
Metamorphic rocks : : Metamorphic rocks are either Igneous or Sedimentary, which have changed beneath the earth due to heat and pressure and has resulted in new form of minerals in it. During this process gemstones also grow within them.
Synthetic Gemstones :: Synthetic gemstones are made in laboratories or factories, not in rocks. They virtually have the same chemical composition and crystal structure as natural gemstones and consequently their optical and physical properties are very similar. However, they can usually be identified by the difference in the inclusions in them. Many types of gems have been synthesized but only a few are produced commercially, generally for scientific or industrial use.
Because of the way the synthetic gems are made, they show subtle differences in shape and colour that help to distinguish them from their natural counterparts. Similarly, the synthetic gems have inclusions, which are different from the natural inclusions. The experts can identify them and distinguish.
There are laws in pure science which have not been proved but are accepted as their effects are observed by us day in and day out and they are called laws conversely also as they have not been proved otherwise. The simplest example being Law of Gravitation. It is a law because it is observed daily by us and also it has not been proved through experiment to be not true.
Similarly the effects of the gemstones are observed by those who use them under proper prescription. Since the effects are very individual in nature, they are not in the scrutiny of public and people do not believe in their beneficial values.
The gemstones have different colours and luster. Sun being the source of all energy, also affects human beings. If we observe the sunlight through prism in a laboratory, we get seven-colour spectrum. The other invisible two colours are infra red and ultra violet. Thus the spectrum of nine colours is understood to be the cosmic matrix and is very essence of nine planets. The nine planets are associated with these colours and the stones prescribed are also in consonance. It is important to note that the wavelength of coloured light emanating from the nine planets is believed to match those radiating from each planet’s corresponding gemstone. Thus prescribing gemstones is not out of synchronous with this energy system. A particular stone absorbs all kind of solar and cosmic energy and allows a particular type of energy to pass through it and which the body then absorbs. If prescribed properly, this actually helps the individual. This restores the balance in him and he finds the self-improving.Moreover, the effects of gemstones have been proved conversely also. If a person is prescribed a wrong gemstone, it has been observed to adversely affect him as long as he wears it and the effect goes away once the stone is removed. Thus the efficacy of gemstones do not require laboratory experiments just the way some of the pure science laws do not require experiment in their support.